The ICAS Lectures

2010-0814-LKA

Excellence in Education: Training for Liberty

Lee K.Anthony


ICAS Summer Symposium

THE KOREAN DIASPORA:
Challenges facing The Korean-American Community (KAC)

August 14, 2010 Saturday 9: 30 AM 4: 30 PM
Montgomery County Community College Science Center room 214
340 DeKalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422


Institute for Corean-American Studies, Inc.
965 Clover Court, Blue Bell, PA 19422
Email: icas@icasinc.org
http://www.icasinc.org


Biographic sketch & Links: Lee K. Anthony

Excellence in Education: Training for Liberty

Lee K. Anthony



I. Intro and Background

Annyong Ha Seyo!

I thank Dr. Kim, the ICAS Board, and thanks to Mr. Il Hwan Kim for inviting me to speak today at the ICAS Summer Symposium. And thank you to the wonderful people who are under the leadership of Pastor Sung Kee Ho at Antioch Church in Conshohocken for allowing our Academy to operate alongside inspirational Christians ... our family tries to worship several times during the year at 5 AM, and it is definitely an memorable experience to wake up at four AM, get my 16 yr old son and husband up and moving, and join the hundreds of Korean Americans praying at Antioch, who then go out to run successful businesses and take care of their families. I feel better about the future of America when I am with my Korean friends!

Our family has lived in Lower Merion Township for almost 25 yrs. As background, our school, The American Academy, was founded in 1994 after we discovered that the Lower Merion schools were not providing a rigorous academic education for our children. The students did not learn phonics or serious math. The emphasis in elementary school was not on academics, but on student self esteem, and a host of non academic psychological exercises to shape the students attitudes, including drug education, sex education, environmental education, death education, conflict resolution, whole language, outcomes based education, and on and on. Memorizing was out. Arithmetic times tables were out. Grammar was out. Good Literature and real science: OUT.

Expressing your feelings without restrictions was "in"... I liked the teachers as people, but I could not allow my children to stagnate in that system. I wanted them to have discipline, good role models, an obedient sprit, love reading and be ready to learn. After several years of attending school board meetings, writing letters to the editor and being publicly mocked in school board meetings for suggesting a return to the classics and rigorous math, my husband and I gave up on public education.

As I looked to the many famous private schools on the Main Line, I was dismayed to find that they, too, used similar textbooks and teaching techniques. With no satisfactory alternatives existing, what else could we do - we started a school.

As I started reading more commentary on the subject of education, I found that my experience at Gladwyne Elementary School was common throughout the United States. The troubles that plague K-12 education are carried into the college level. Because I also am the guidance counselor at The American Academy, I am all too familiar with what is happening on college campuses, and it is not good.

SO, there is bad news about the state of education, and there is good news. I will start with the bad news so that we can hear good news before we go to lunch!

II. Public Education fails. My aim today is to discuss education as a national issue and also on a personal level to encourage each of you to single mindedly pursue educational excellence as a priority for your children; if I or The American Academy can help you in that process we would be happy to, even if you do not attend our school. You already have taken an important step, by participating in ICAS!

The US Constitution did not provide for Public Education as a right. Public schools didn't really come into being until after the Civil War, and the US Dept of Education wasn't created until the 1960s.

Let's take a look at the "Big Picture". I like quotes, so here is a provocative one from the US Department of Education, in their 1983 landmark report, A Nation at Risk:

If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves...We have, in effect, been committing an act of unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament.

Let's look at what some of the scholars of the revolutionary and post revolutionary period had to say, since our focus today is training for liberty, the Founders will be our "primary sources." At TAA we always train our students to use primary sources...

Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville wrote his famous book, Democracy in America about his observations of the new and vigorous American spirit, and he influenced Orestes Brownson to write a work called "In Opposition to Centralization" in 1839 which clearly outlines that centralized education such as in Prussia was the last thing that Americans wanted:

"A government system of education in Prussia is not inconsistent with the theory of Prussian society, for there all wisdom is supposed to be lodged in the government. But the thing is wholly inadmissible here . . . because, according to our theory, the people are supposed to be wiser than the government. Here, the people do not look to the government for light, for instruction, but the government looks to the people. The people give the law to the government. To entrust, then, the government with the power of determining the education which our children shall receive is entrusting our servant with the power to be our master. This fundamental difference between the two countries , we apprehend, has been overlooked by the board of education and its supporters."

The Founder's would turn in their graves to know that we now have a completely centralized, Government controlled system of education which captures a whopping 86% of our nation's youth. The teachers are also centralized in two trade unions; the NEA is the largest labor union in the world, and it has a radical agenda. The Government system is so large and its union so powerful that it has unprecedented influence on text book publishing, College Board standardized testing, teacher credentialing and almost every aspect of our educational system. Parents are disenfranchised by this monolithic system where academics and student achievement are not primary goals.

My disclaime: Before I give you statistics about the failure of Public Education I want to say that my comments are not directed toward individual teachers. I know many individual teachers in public schools who are excellent. My criticism is about the system of a highly centralized monopoly of education, where there is inefficient use of resources and no parental control. I do not wish to offend anyone here; I wish to open a debate and share ideas and hopefully through this process come to constructive conclusions about the education which is so important to our children's future as well as to the future of our country.

As an MBA, I like to see results, so let's see how American students compare internationally.

SLIDE WITH SCIENCE TEST SCORES. Americans spend more money and have fancier facilities than their global counterparts, but we fail miserably in international test scores. Our top students in 12th grade cannot compete with the top students internationally. Because we have limited time, I am going to quickly run through a sampling of the irresponsible performance that characterizes American schools all across the country.

Math and science offer the only common basis for comparing American schools to the rest of the world. Other subjects vary from one country to another. Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, 1999 and 2003) involving a half-million students in 41 countries are authoritative. Oversight groups included not only the world's leading experts on comparative studies of education systems, but also experts in assessment design and statistical analysis.

By grade 4, American students only score in the middle of 26 countries reported. By grade 8 they are in the bottom third, and in grade 12 the US ranks near the bottom. It's even worse when you notice that some of the higher ranking countries in grade 8 (especially the Asian countries) were not included in published 12th grade results, because they do not need 12 grades

SAT scores reached their apex in the 1960's. After that, SAT mean scores started to decline (remember that we started to centralize education in the newly created US Dept of Education at that time) until 1994 when the decline was so embarrassing that we "re-normed" the SAT scores nationally by adding points to the verbal and math mean.




SLIDE WITH SCIENCE DEGREE comps

There are some very disturbing trends in the United Sates with respect to our global share of science, technology, engineering and mathematics expertise, direct results of our poor performance in K-12 math and science. In 2004 the National Science Foundation published data demonstrating that our country is producing far fewer engineers than are other parts of the world, particularly Asia. R.E. Smally, a Nobel Prize winning scientist from Rice University, has predicted that before 2020, 90% of all PhD physical scientist and engineers in the world will be Asian living in Asia.

Why is this important? As professor Herbold explains, from the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, these science fields are vitally important to the business world in the USA. Over 50% of the CEOs of our Fortune 100 companies come from a technical background. PhD expertise in these fields drives the kind of highly prized innovations that lead to the emergence of new industries We risk seeing our industrial leadership weaken.

: K-12 Establishment is Putting America's Industrial Leadership at Risk

Robert J. Herbold, as printed in Imprimis, February 2004

Figure 2: Engineering & Science Degrees as a % of all Bachelor Degrees

Singapore 68% U.K. 28%
Germany 31% S. Korea 36%
USA 17% Sweden 24%
China 58% Taiwan 34%
Belgium 22%


Figure 3: Number of PhD degrees in Engineering and Science

1987 2001

USA 4,700 4,400

All Asian countries 5,600 24,000 *

*(25 percent fewer Asians got such degrees at U.S. universities in 2001 than in 1996)




( SLIDE WITH NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND DATA)

OK let's talk about economic inefficiency and lack of accountability inherent in our huge Government education monopoly. For our example, I have chosen to look at a highly publicized 2001 congressional program in education called "NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND."

No Child Left Behind, or is it Many Children Left Behind?






From the National Center for Education Statistics ("The Nation's Report Card")

NCLB=No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Figure 1 shows the pattern for fourth grade students, graphing the size of the gains overall and for each of the student groups that NCLB was specifically designed to help: low-performing students, black students, and Hispanic students.

In each case, we see that the pre-NCLB gains were greater than the post- NCLB gains, sometimes substantially. For example, among the lowest-performing students in the nation (those scoring in the bottom 10 percent), scores between 1996 and 2003 increased by 15 points. In the NCLB years, they increased by only 5 points. Gains among Hispanic and black students were also far lower during the post-NCLB period.

Many experts offer their own reasons for the failure of NCLB act-Unfortunately, we have too many possible explanations for far too little data-but the bottom line is clear: NCLB has not worked the way it was intended and the nation is worse off because of it. (From an essay by Mark Schneider, American Enterprise Institute Journal, 10/14/09.)




_ SLIDE on Civic Literacy

So, we can't do Math or Science, but how about Civics and preparing our students for engagement in the Political Process. After all, if the US Constitution requires "We the People" to self govern in order to preserve liberty, then Civic Literacy should be a priority for our students, shouldn't it? Well, let's look at the "bottom line" in an annual survey administered to 14,000 students by the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. As you can see, the students at Johns Hopkins, Yale and Princeton not only flunk this test of basic knowledge, but they know less about civics when they graduate!!

If you wish to take the test yourself, you can at www.isi.org. At The American Academy, we expect our 5th graders to score 80% or greater. I will also note that the incoming freshman scores really are not a reflection on the colleges. This is a reflection of what students are learning, or I should say what students are NOT learning in the K-12 public school system.





Source: Intercollegiate Studies Institute

And here are the bottom 10 schools -- which saw their students lose the most ground (the figures show the percentage point decrease in scores between freshmen and seniors):



Source: Intercollegiate Studies Institute

SLIDE: READING in the USA

Reading is the single most important element in a student's education. Evidence suggests, however, that US students fail miserably in their reading ability and even worse, they do not care that they are ignorant and don't read. A powerful book on this subject, THE DUMBEST GENERATION by James Madison Fellow Mark Bauerlein, sounds the alarm and makes a case for "digital detox," or limiting computer, TV, texting, and internet usage and returning to reading books.

Not only does this mean that US students are not reading and doing homework, or doing something productive like practicing a musical instrument, etc, but they are becoming isolated from normal family interactions such as eating dinner together or playing with siblings or neighborhood friends. This isolationist existence of the typical student is destructive to their social development, their academic progress, and to developing strong communities. I don't know about you, but to me the most distressing thing about the internet is that parents have no idea who their child is talking to, or for how long, or what they are saying. It's all secret. Parents are forbidden to enter their child's virtual society.

As Bauerlein demonstrates in his book, 2/3 of students are not proficient in reading and therefore only 45% vote, because they cannot comprehend a ballot. On average, they watch TV and play video games 2-4 hours per day. They have more schooling and less knowledge than ever before. In a gloomy conclusion, Bauerlein states, "They may even be the generation that lost that great American heritage, forever."

SLIDE ON RAINFOREST ALGEBRA

So with all the academic gloom and doom that I have outlined, what are the public schools doing about it? Well, just about nothing. If you really want to be depressed, read the resolutions from the National Teacher's union convention. You will be hard pressed to find any mention of striving for academic excellence. As a matter of fact, academic excellence isn't politically correct, since it means some students will excel over others, and this is not encouraged. Even math and science are not exempt from this "everyone gets the right answer no matter what" approach. You can amuse yourself for hours perusing this non academic math curriculum which is responsible for our miserable test scores at "Weapons of Math Destruction," one of my favorite websites.




SLIDE ON RED PENCIL

In elementary school reading isn't the teachers' priority, but creating self esteem in each student is. Everyone is an honors student, and no one should ever feel bad about their poor work. Pedagogy now dictates that teachers are not permitted to use red pencil to correct student papers, because it would be confrontational to the student, and red signifies blood and violence. In Lower Merion schools I am told that Green is the color of choice when correcting papers, because it signifies "GO."




(NO SLIDE) There are also TEACHER COMPETENCY problems- Teacher certification bears no relation to their scholarship. Teachers tend to have low SATs, and a large percentage of public school teachers do not have a major or minor degree in the subject they teach. In Philadelphia, 1/2 of the public school teachers failed a competency test and none were fired due to strict tenure agreements. The teacher's union consistently opposes any teacher competency tests for credentialed teachers. Where else is your job guaranteed regardless of your performance?




SLIDE: Public Education F

To summarize our points thus far, Government education has received an F in math, science, reading, civics, teacher competency, and economic efficiency, accountability, transparency...so what is the GOOD NEWS

I. Here is the GOOD NEWS : with liberty we have private innovative and competing ideas about education, and we know from history the kind of education which produced our Founding Fathers. We can do it, too. But let's back up. (SLIDE) Let's define the Proper Purpose of Education - TO TEACH WISDOM AND VIRTUE. The purpose of education is more than to simply get a job, although that is important. The ingredients of an excellent education: good teachers, and the right curriculum. Wisdom and Virtue equal academic instruction and moral instruction. Both elements are essential, indeed if you had to choose one over the other, it would have to be moral instruction since otherwise we are producing very clever criminals.

In the ideal world, academic and moral instruction comes from the parents, the church, and the school, all teaching within a similar worldview. Home, church and school - the three legged stool...a solid foundation and broad network of good role models and mentors.

The Founders knew that self governance and liberty depended on the education of the people. This education was of the upmost importance to allowing liberty and a civilized society. As Benjamin Franklin acknowledged after he finished his work at the Constitutional Convention, "It's a republic, if we can keep it." Let's talk about how we can train up our children to "Keep it" strong for the next generation of Americans.

Those words, WE THE PEOPLE which start the preamble to the US Constitution, embody the new and daring idea which these brilliant men had, to SELF GOVERN. They spurned royalty and did NOT want a reinvented version of the monarchy they had fled from in Britain. Training for Liberty, we cannot find better role models for education than the men who invented Liberty, our Founders, who had the Epic task of building our nation. As soon as the American Revolution was won by the Americans, the Founders started to worry about how to preserve their new republican government. In a 2001 address to the American Association of Law Schools, scholar Davison Douglas summarized,

"Many eighteenth-century Americans viewed education as perhaps the most vital component in the preservation of a republican form of government's.36 While monarchy used education, or the lack of it, to fix each social class in its proper place in the political order, republicanism demanded an educated citizenry equipped to engage in the processes of self-government.37 Indeed, an educated public could operate as yet another of the checks and balances found in republican constitutions.38 As Jefferson said, "Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish like evil spirits at the dawn of day."39 On another occasion he exclaimed: "Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe."40

Jefferson believed that a republican form of government could not survive without public virtue, and that such virtue could not simply be assumed.43Young men, especially those who would provide leadership, must be trained to exercise public virtue, particularly in the face of the strong inducements of a purely private life.44

Historian George Nash points out that the Bible was cited more frequently than any other source in the Revolutionary War era. Do you think our public school students know that?

Today, our government schools do not want us to know that the Founders viewed Liberty as being wholly dependent on the religious instruction of the people, and this religious instruction had to be Christian to permit maximum religious freedom (where else in the world is there real religious freedom?)

SLIDES ON FOUNDERS QUOTES ON RELIGION, EDUCATION and Liberty (Washington, Adams, Acton)



Lord Acton, (1834-1902), First Baron Acton of Aldenham defines Liberty:

Liberty is the prevention of control by others. This requires self-control and, therefore, religious and spiritual influences; education, knowledge, well-being.

John Adams
Signer of the Declaration of Independence and Second President of the United States

It is religion and morality alone which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand. The only foundation of a free constitution is pure virtue.

(Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown, 1854), Vol. IX, p. 401, to Zabdiel Adams on June 21, 1776.)

[W]e have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. . . . Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.

(Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. 1854), Vol. IX, p. 229, October 11, 1798.)

The moment the idea is admitted into society, that property is not as sacred as the laws of God, and that there is not a force of law and public justice to protect it, anarchy and tyranny commence. If "Thou shalt not covet," and "Thou shalt not steal," were not commandments of Heaven, they must be made inviolable precepts in every society, before it can be civilized or made free.

(Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), Vol. VI, p. 9.)



George Washington

"Father of Our Country"

While just government protects all in their religious rights, true religion affords to government its surest support.

(Source: George Washington, The Writings of George Washington, John C. Fitzpatrick, editor (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1932), Vol. XXX, p. 432 n., from his address to the Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in North America, October 9, 1789.)

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of man and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked, Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?

And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who, that is a sincere friend to it, can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric?

(Source: George Washington, Address of George Washington, President of the United States . . . Preparatory to His Declination (Baltimore: George and Henry S. Keatinge), pp. 22-23. In his Farewell Address to the United States in 1796.)

[T]he [federal] government . . . can never be in danger of degenerating into a monarchy, and oligarchy, an aristocracy, or any other despotic or oppressive form so long as there shall remain any virtue in the body of the people.

(Source: George Washington, The Writings of George Washington, John C. Fitzpatrick, editor (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1939), Vol. XXIX, p. 410. In a letter to Marquis De Lafayette, February 7, 1788.)




SLIDE Liberty and Christianity



Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville wrote the classic book, Democracy in America, his observations of what was unique about the new American Government (1835). He wrote,

The Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to make them conceive the one without the other...




READING WAS A WAY OF LIFE in colonial America. Colonial boys read Greek and Latin early and demonstrated proficiency before they entered college, which was generally at age 14-15. Several of the founders, including Adams, attended Harvard. The only academic requirements for admission to Harvard University were as follows: "When any scholar is able to sight read or similar classical Latin authors write and speak true Latin in verse and prose , and decline perfectly the paradigms of nouns and verbs in the Greek tongue, then may he be admitted into the college, nor shall any claim admission before such qualification."

Typical Library of a Founding Father: A Bibliographical Essay by Forrest McDonald (Liberty Fund)- it was common for the Founders toread up to 12 hours per day, starting before in the morning and slacking off around 4 PM suppertime, and changing to "belle letters" genre books in the evening (that's the "light" reading of fiction, poetry, drama, like Shakespeare!). I have a list of the books that most of the Founders read, if that is of interest. (read a sampling)

Because the classical languages, Latin and Greek, the classical writings and culture are so full of intellectual worth, we emphasize the classics at The American Academy, as well as the disciplines of Logic and Rhetoric. We do not have to "reinvent the wheel" for educational excellence, metaphorically speaking, we simply need torediscover it and use it.




In conclusion, I wanted to read two quotes from Abraham Lincoln, one of our greatest Presidents. The first is a prophetic warningabout how we as a nation might fall in the future, which I think applies directly to our failing system of education and consequent casual attitude of entitlement of our citizens. In 1838, 28 year old Lincoln gave a speech titled, "The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions," in which he stated,



If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation of freemen, we must live through all time, or die by suicide.

We're not dead yet, but let's say we are in the last stages of "life support." This is our challenge as parents and as a nation in the education of our children: to work diligently to teach and guard our liberty, for as Abraham Lincoln so eloquently stated in his famous Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863

...that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Thank you for the privilege of addressing you today and I look forward to any questions you have. I have pencils for you to take. If you wish to learn more about TAA, or to inquire about admission, please visit our website and contact me to set up an appointment.

Bibliography of Books Read by Founding Fathers:

Every household owned and read the Bible

Newspapers were widely read - according to the Liberty Fund research, "we may safely estimate that half the adult male population read the newspaper with some frequency."

Classical Histories

Virgil, Cicero, and Tacitus in Latin.
Thucydides in Greek.
Charles Rollin, The Ancient History, 2 vols. (London, 1739-1750).
David Langhorne's edition of Plutarch's Lives.
James Hampton's 1762 translation of The General History of Polybius2 vols. (London, 1762-1763).
Walter Moyle, The Whole Works (1727).
Edward Wortley Montagu, Reflections on the Rise and Fall of Ancient Republics Adapted to the Present State of Great Britain(1759).
Oliver Goldsmith, The Roman History 2 vols. (1769).
Tacitus's Germania. In 1728 Thomas Gordon published a translation of Tacitus's works in two volumes.
English History
Paul de Rapin-Thoyras, five-volume History of England(English translation by Nicholas Tindal, 1732-1747, reissued in part in Boston, 1773).
Nathaniel Bacon, An Historical Discourse of the Uniformity of the Government of England (2 vols. 1647-1651)
John Jacob Mascou, History of the Ancient Germans (translated by Thomas Lediard, 1737, with the title The History of Our Great Ancestors).
Henry Care, English Liberties (1680).
Henry Home, Lord Kames, British Antiquities (1763).
Obadiah Hulme, Historical Essay on the English Constitution (1771)
John, Lord Somers, Vox populi, Vox dei: Judgment of Whole Kingdoms and Nations concenring the Rights, Privileges, and Properties of the People, first published in 1710 but reprinted in cheap editions in Philadelphia in 1773 and Newport in 1774.
Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, Remarks on the History of England was published as part of his collected works in 1754.
David Hume, History of England (1754-1762), 6 vols.
Catherine Macaulay, History of England, 8 vols. (1763-1783)
James Burgh, Political Disquisitions (1774).
Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England. (The Philadelphia printer Robert Bell published a subscription edition of Blackstone's Commentaries in 1771-1772).
William Molyneaux, The Cause of Ireland, originally appeared in 1698, three new editions were published between 1770 and 1776.
Sir William Temple, Observations upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands (London, 1673).
Science Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophiae natuiralis Principia Mathematica (London, 1687).
Oliver Goldsmith, History of the Earth and Animated Nature.
W.B. Martin, Philosophica Britannica, or a New and Comprehensive System of the Newtonian Philosophy (1747).
George-Louis Leclerc Buffon, Natural History (1749-1783)
International Law
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace(Paris, 1625), the first English edition appeared in 1654. The best edition, in Hamilton's view, was that of 1738 (reissued 1749) with notes by Barbeyrac.
Samuel F. Pufendorf, The Law of Nature and Nationsappeared first in Latin and was published in English in 1703 (the 1712 edition had notes by Barbeyrac).
Jean Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Political Law (2 volumes 1747, first English edition 1748, 1752).
Emmerich Vattel,Law of Nations (1758, English edition 1759).
Political Theory
Plato, The Republic.
John Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690).
James Harrington, Oceana (London, 1656).
Algernon Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government (London, 1698).
Henry Neville, Plato Redivivus; or a Dialogue concerning Government (London, 1681).
Nathaniel Bacon, Historical and Political Discourses.
Marchament Hedham, Excellencie of a Free State.
Sir Robert Melesworth.
John Milton.
Charles Davenant, Political and Commercial Works.
John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, Cato's Letters (London, 1724).
Henry St. John Viscount Bolingbroke.
James Burgh, Political Disquisitions(London, 1774-75).
Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws(Paris, 1748).
Lord Acton.




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