Office of Legal Counsel, U.S. Department of Justice
Deputy Assistant Attorney General. 2001-present.
Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California at Berkeley
Professor of Law. 1999-present. (on leave of absence)
Acting Professor of Law. 1993-99.
Director, International Legal Studies Program, 1999-2001.
Subjects: Constitutional Law, Foreign Relations Law, International Civil
Litigation, Separation of Powers, Civil Procedure, International Trade,
International Law & Ethics
Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate
General Counsel. 1995-1996.
Justice Clarence Thomas
Law Clerk. U.S. Supreme Court. 1994-95.
Judge Laurence H. Silberman
Law Clerk. U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. 1992-93.
Covington & Burling (1991); Skadden, Arps, (1991); Dechert, Price &
Rhoads (1990); White House Counsel (1990); Wall St. Journal (1989);
Boston Globe (1988)
Yale Law School
Articles Editor, Yale Law Journal
Teaching Assistant, Prof. Harold Koh
Research Assistant, Prof. Stephen Carter
University Advisory Committee on Investor Responsibility
A.B., summa cum laude, History, 1989
History Dept. Prize, Washburn Prize, Detur Prize, Phi Beta Kappa,
Deputy Editorial Chairman, The Harvard Crimson
PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES AND AWARDS
Council on Foreign Relations
Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations
Bar of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Bar of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
Paul M. Bator Award, Federalist Society, 2001.
Chair, Section on Scholarship, Association of American Law Schools, 2000.
Scholar-in-Residence, George Washington University Law School, 1998-99
John M. Olin Foundation Fellowship, 1998-99
Visiting Professor, Free University of Amsterdam, 1998
Junior Faculty Research Grant, University of California, Berkeley, 1997-98
Salvatori Fellowship, Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1997
American-German Young Leader, American Council on Germany, 1997
Director, Harvard Alumni Association
Scholars Advisory Panel, National Constitution Center
Advisory Committee, Department of Justice Transition Team, Bush/Cheney
Co-Chair, Law Professors for Bush/Cheney
Board of Editors, Berkeley Journal of International Law
Board of Editors, Asian Law Journal
Articles and Essays
Politics as Laws?: The ABM Treaty, the Separation of Powers, and Treaty
Interpretation, 89 Cal. L. Rev. 851-915 (2001).
The Puzzling Persistence of Process-Based Federalism Theories, 79 Tex.
L. Rev. 1459-1523 (2001) (with Sai Prakash).
Laws as Treaties?: The Constitutionality of the Congressional-Executive
Agreement, 99 Mich. L. Rev. 757-852 (2001).
Choosing Justices: A Political Appointments Process and the Wages of
Judicial Supremacy, 98 Mich. L. Rev. 1436-67 (2000) (review essay).
Kosovo, War Powers, and the Multilateral Future, 148 U. Pa. L. Rev.
Treaties and Public Lawmaking: A Textual and Structural Defense of
Non-Self-Execution, 99 Colum. L. Rev. 2210-2252 (1999).
Globalism and the Constitution: Treaties, Legislative Power, and the
Original Understanding, 99 Colum. L. Rev. 1955-2100 (1999).
The New Sovereignty and the Old Constitution: The Chemical Weapons
Convention and the Appointments Clause, 15 Constitutional Commentary
The Judicial Safeguards of Federalism, 70 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1311-1405 (1997).
Who Measures the Chancellor's Foot?: The Inherent Remedial Powers of the
Federal Courts, 84 Cal. L. Rev. 1121-1177 (1996).
The Continuation of Politics by Other Means: The Original Understanding
of War Powers, 84 Cal. L. Rev. 167-305 (1996).
Our Declaratory Ninth Amendment, 42 Emory L.J. 967-1043 (1993).
Dollar Diplomacy/Dollar Defense: The Fabric of Economics and National
Security Law, 26 Int'l Law. 715 (1992) (with Harold Koh).
Marshall's Plan: The Early Supreme Court and Statutory Interpretation,
101 Yale L.J. 1607 (1992)
Bush v. Gore: In Defense of the Court's Legitimacy, 68 U. Chi. L. Rev.
The Scope of the Commerce Clause After Morrison, 25 OKCU L. Rev. 843-868
(2000) (with Jesse Choper)
U.N. Wars, U.S. War Powers, 1 Chic. J. Int'l L. 355-73 (2000).
Why Were International Legal Scholars MIA on Kosovo?, 1 Chicago J. Int'l
L 149-57 (2000).
Clio at War: The Use and Misuse of History in the War Powers Debate, 70
U. Colo. L. Rev. 1169-1222 (1999).
The First Claim: The Burr Trial, United States v. Nixon, and
Presidential Power, 83 Minn. L. Rev. 1435-79 (1999).
Lawyers in Congress, 61 L. & Contemporary Problems vol.2 1-19 (1998).
Sounds of Sovereignty: Defining Federalism in the 1990s, 32 Ind. L. Rev.
Judicial Review and Federalism, 22 Harv. J. L.. & Pub. Pol'y 197 (1998).
Federal Courts as Weapons of Foreign Policy: The Case of the
Helms-Burton Act, 20 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 747-76 (1997)
Congress and the Judiciary's Equitable Powers, in Reining in The
Imperial Judiciary (Christopher Wolfe, ed., forthcoming 2002).
Bush v. Gore: In Defense of the Court's Legitimacy, in The Vote (Richard
Epstein & Cass Sunstein eds., 2001)
The States and Judicial Review in The Tenth Amendment and State
Sovereignty: Constitutional History and Contemporary Issues (Mark
Killenbeck, ed., Rowman & Littlefield, forthcoming 2001).
The Imperial President Abroad, in The Rule of Law in the Wake of Clinton
(Roger Pilon ed., CATO Press 2000)
Biological and Chemical Weapon Treaties and the Constitution, in The New
Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons 269-304
(Sidney Drell et al eds., Hoover Institution Press, 1999).
McCulloch v. Maryland as Constitutional Tragedy, in Constitutional
Stupidities, Constitutional Tragedies 241 (William N. Eskridge, Jr. &
Sanford Levinson eds., New York Univ. Press, 1998)
Missiles Away, Legal Times, May 7, 2001 (with Jack Goldsmith)
Missile Defense Defense, The American Lawyer, Apr. 2001 (with Jack
A Legislature's Duty, Wall St. J., Dec. 4, 2000.
The Right Moment for Judicial Power, New York Times, Nov. 25, 2000.
Bush Has a Federal Case, Wall St. J., Nov. 16, 2000.
Seattle and Sovereignty, Wall St. J., Dec. 6, 1999 (with Jack Goldsmith).
The Supreme Court Rediscovers an Old Clause, Wall St. J., May 24, 1999.
War Powers: Where Have All the Liberals Gone?, Wall St. J., March 15, 1999.
A Subpoenaed President, Wall St. J., July 20, 1998.
When Desegregation Turns into Discrimination, Wall St. J., May 26, 1998.
A Privileged Executive?, Wall St. J., March 2, 1998.
Criticizing Judges, 1 Greenbag 2d 277-287 (1998).
First, Uphold the Law, New York Times, Nov. 13, 1997.
John Huang's Immunity Ploy, Wall St. J., July 16, 1997.
How Congress's Subpoena Power Works, Wall St. J., May 28, 1997.
The Chemical Weapons Treaty is Unconstitutional, Wall St. J., April 16,
The Independent Counsel, in Encycl. of the Am. Constitution (L. Levy et
al. eds., 2000).
Editor's Notes, Alberico Gentili's De Legationibus Libri Tres (1594,
Editor's Notes, William Whiting's War Powers Under the Constitution of
the United States (1864, republished 1997)
TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS
Legal Responses to Terrorism, National Workshop for District Judges,
Federal Judicial Center, San Diego, CA (Dec. 3-4, 2001).
Legal Responses to Terrorism, District of Columbia Bar Association,
Washington, D.C. (Nov. 19, 2001).
Alien Tort Claims Act: Are American Courts the World's Policemen?,
Federalist Society Annual Lawyers Convention, Washington, D.C. (Nov. 16,
The Prosecution of Terrorists, Conference on War, Court, or Both,
American Society of International Law, Washington, D.C. (Oct. 12, 2001).
U.S. Approaches to Multilateral Treaties, Roundtable, New York
University Law School, New York, NY (Sept. 29, 2001).
Bush v. Gore and the Court's Legitimacy, Conference on Judicial Power,
Autonoma University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (June 9, 2001).
International Law and American Federalism, American Enterprise
Institute, Washington, D.C. (Apr. 4, 2001).
The Puzzling Persistence of Process-Based Federalism Theories, Cardozo
School of Law, New York, NY (Apr. 2, 2001)
Bush v. Gore and the Legitimacy of the Supreme Court, Ecole Des Hautes
Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France (Mar. 30, 2001)
Foreign Affairs Federalism and the Separation of Powers, Federalism
Symposium, Villanova Law School, Villanova, PA (Oct. 28, 2000)
The Commerce Clause after Lopez and Morrison, Oklahoma City University
Law School, Symposium on Federalism, Oklahoma City, OK (Sept. 27, 2000)
The Imperial Presidency Abroad, Symposium on The Rule of Law in the Wake
of Clinton, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C. (July 12, 2000)
Federalism and Judicial Review, University of Montpelier Law School,
Montpelier, France (June 10, 2000)
The Constitutionality of Congressional-Executive Agreements, Public Law
Workshop, University of Chicago Law School, Chicago, IL (May 18, 2000)
International Law, the Treaty Power, and Domestic Litigation, American
Society of International Law, Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. (April 6,
U.N. Wars, U.S. War Powers, American Enterprise Institute, Washington,
D.C. (April 5, 2000)
Kosovo and Multilateral War Powers, University of Utah School of Law,
Salt Lake City, UT (Mar. 23, 2000).
Liberty, Resistance, and the Rule of Law, Liberty Fund Colloquium, New
Orleans, LA (Mar. 9-12, 2000)
Globalization and the Constitution, Athenaeum Speakers Series,
Claremont-McKenna College, Claremont, CA (Feb. 17, 2000)
Separation of Powers and Foreign Policy, Federalist Society National
Lawyers Convention, Washington, D.C. (Nov. 13, 1999) (panel chair)
Ethics and Post-Cold War Humanitarian Intervention: Beyond Realism and
Idealism, Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
(Nov. 6, 1999) (panel chair).
Supreme Court 1998 Term, Conference of the U.S. District Court, Northern
District of California, Asilomar, CA (Oct. 18, 1999).
The Spirit of the Laws, Robbins Collection, Boalt Hall, (Oct. 15-16,
1999) (panel chair).
The Separation of Powers and the 20th Century, Federal Bar Association,
Sacramento, CA (Sept. 25, 1999)
Testimony on H.R. 1082: The Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1999,
Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington,
D.C. (August 4, 1999).
Supreme Court 1998 Term, Federal Judicial Center, Washington, D.C. (July
Supreme Court 1998 Term, Judicial Conference, U.S. Court of Appeals for
the Eighth Circuit, Kansas City, Missouri (July 9, 1999).
Criticizing Judges and Judicial Independence, Judicial Conference, U.S.
Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, Kansas City, Missouri (July 8,
Established Religion and Compelled Speech: Links Between the Framing of
the First Amendment of the Constitution and Modern Speech Doctrine, The
Robbins Collection in Religious and Civil Law & La Veme Section de
l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sciences Religieuses, La Sorbonne
(June 3, 1999).
Supreme Court 1998 Term, National Association of Attorneys General,
Boise ID (May 27, 1999)
Regulation of Federal Judicial Appellate Jurisdiction under the Prison
Litigation Reform Act, Federal Judicial Center Seminar for Federal
Appellate Judges, Stanford Law School, Stanford, CA (April 15, 1999).
Treaties as Public Lawmaking, William and Mary Law School Faculty
Colloquium, Williamsburg, VA (March 26, 1999).
Delegating Sovereignty: Constitutional and Legal Implications of US
Participation in Treaty Regimes, Center for International Studies, New
York University, New York, NY (Feb. 27, 1999) (participant).
Impeachment and the Rule of Law, Federalist Society, University of North
Carolina Law School, Charlotte, North Carolina (Feb. 10, 1999).
Clio at War: The Misuse of History in the War Powers Debate, University
of Colorado Law Review Symposium, Boulder, CO (Jan. 22, 1999).
The Independent Counsel Statute in the Next Century, Federalist Society
Law Scholars Panel, Association of American Law Schools Annual Meeting,
New Orleans, LA (Jan. 6, 1998) (panel chair).
Impeachment and the Rule of Law, San Francisco Unified School District
Teachers Retreat, San Francisco, CA (Dec. 8, 1998).
Impeachment and President Clinton, Federalist Society Lawyers Chapter,
Sacramento, CA (Dec. 7, 1998).
Judicial Independence and Judicial Accountability, 100th Anniversary
Symposium, University of Southern California Law School, Los Angeles, CA
(Nov. 20, 1998).
Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Hoover
Institution/Stanford University Conference on Biological and Chemical
Weapons, Stanford, CA (Nov. 17, 1998).
The Clinton Administration and the Rule of Law, Federalist Society
Lawyer's Chapter, Pittsburgh, PA (Nov. 4, 1998).
Presidential Privileges in the Age of Clinton, University of Minnesota
Law Review Symposium, University of Minnesota Law School, Minneapolis,
MN (Oct. 20, 1998).
Treaties as Public Lawmaking, University of Virginia Law School Faculty
Workshop, Charlottesville, VA (Oct. 9, 1998).
Political Participation in the Reformation of State Institutions,
American Political Philosophy Association, Symposium on Judicial
Imperialism, Washington, D.C. (Oct. 2, 1998).
The October 1997 Supreme Court Term, Judicial Conference of the U.S.
Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, White Sulphur Springs, West
Virginia (June 27, 1998)
The Law and Politics of the Independent Counsel Statute, Institute for
Governmental Studies, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
(April 22, 1998)
The Senate's Prerogatives in the Judicial Appointments Process,
Federalist Society, University of Chicago Law School, Chicago, IL (Apr.
Sounds of Sovereignty: Federalism in the 1990's, Symposium on "National
Power and State Autonomy," Indiana University Law School, Bloomington,
IN (Apr. 17, 1998)
The Original Understanding of the Treaty Power, Berkeley Journal of
International Law Symposium, Boalt Hall School of Law, University of
California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (Apr. 6, 1998)
The Treaty Power, University of San Diego Law School, San Diego, CA
(Mar. 16, 1998)
Federalism in the 1990's, Federalist Society Student Symposium, New York
University Law School, New York, NY (March 7, 1998)
Are Property Rights an International Human Right?, Federalist Society
National Symposium, Practice Group on National Security and
International Law, Washington, D.C. (Oct. 17, 1997).
Unilateral Trade Sanctions and the World Trade Organization, Trade with
Asia: Legal Challenges for the Next Century, Berkeley Journal of
International Law Symposium, Berkeley, CA (Sept. 20, 1997).
The Clash of Civilizations?: The Rule of Law and International Affairs,
German-American Young Leaders Conference, American Council on Germany,
Hamburg, Germany, (Aug. 25, 1997)
The Original Understanding of the Treaty Power, Society for Historians
of American Foreign Relations, Washington, D.C., Annual Meeting (June
Federal Courts and Equitable Remedies, Hastings College of Law,
University of California, San Francisco, CA (March 21, 1997)
The Political Relationship Between the Supreme Court and Congress, Legal
Studies Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
(March 19, 1997)
The Judicial Protection of Individual Rights and State Sovereignty,
Conference on Privileges and Rights of Citizenship: Law and the
Juridical Construction of Civil Society, Robbins Collection, Boalt Hall
School of Law, Berkeley, CA (March 14, 1997)
East Timor and International Law, Conference on East Timor, Portuguese
Studies Program, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
(March 1, 1997)
The Political Independence of the Federal Judiciary, testimony before
the American Bar Association, Commission on the Separation of Powers and
Judicial Independence, San Francisco, CA (February 21, 1997)
The Federal Judiciary and the Senate, Public Law Seminar, Political
Science Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
(February 19, 1997)
Helms-Burton and the Use of Federal Courts as Weapons of Foreign Policy,
Hastings College of Law, University of California, Symposium on the
Helms-Burton Act (January 1997).
McCulloch v. Maryland as a Constitutional Tragedy, Association of
American Law Schools, Section on Interpretation, Washington, D.C.,
Annual Meeting (January 1997)
The Inherent Remedial Power of the Federal Courts, The Heritage
Foundation, Washington, D.C., Symposium on Judicial Power (December 1996).
Limits on the Federal Judicial Power, The Federalist Society,
Washington, D.C., National Symposium on the Federal Judiciary (November
School Desegregation and the Federal Judicial Power, Federalist Society,
New York University Law School, New York, NY (October, 1996).
The Chemical Weapons Convention and the Limits of American Sovereignty,
testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on the
Constitution, Washington, D.C. (Sept. 10, 1996).
The Original Understanding of War Powers, The Society for Historians of
American Foreign Relations, Boston, MA, Annual Meeting (June, 1994).